Common name: Nepalese pepper

Vernacular name: Timur

Botanical name: Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Family: Rutaceae


A shrub or small tree often 3m high, with strong prickles on the branches. Leaves stalked, alternate, imparipinnate, rachis narrowly winged; leaflets 2-10cm x 1.5-2.5cm, lanceolate, more or less serrate. Flowers small, polyga mous, yellow, Fruits globose, red when matured, tubercled.

Flowering period: April-May.

Fruiting period: July-November.

Parts used: Fruits.

Distribution: It grows throughout Nepal between 1100m-2500m. Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N. India, East to China, Taiwan, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands.

Propagation: Propagated from seeds or from branch cuttings.

Method of extraction of Zanthoxylum Oil: Zanthoxylum Oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fruits of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Specification of Zanthoxylum
1. Organoleptic Properties
Appearance Mobile liquid.
Color Golden yellow
Aroma Refreshing, pleasant, warm-spicy odor.
2. Physico-chemical Properties
Specific gravity 0.8150 to 0.9051 at 25°C.
Optical rotation [+] 5º to [+] 10.5º at 25º C
Refractive index 1.4674 to 1.4815 at 25°C.
Acid number 0.5 to 5
Ester number 35 to 65
Ester number after acetylation 110 to 150
Solubility Soluble in 0.8 to 1.5 volumes of 90% alcohol.
3. Chemical constituent
Lemonene, linalool and methyl cinnamate as major components and l-pinen, l-thujene, β-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpenin-4-ol, piperitone, carvone, cuminaldehyde, methyl cinnamate as other constituents.
4. Uses:
  1.  In fragrance and flavoring.
  2. Aromatherapy: Anti-infectious, sedative, arthritis.
  3. Being rich in linalool, and also containing limonene, methyl cinnamate and cineole, it is used in the fragrance and flavor industry

Essential Oil