Common name: Juniper

Vernacular name: Dhupi

Botanical name: Juniperus communis L.

Family: Cupressaceae


A dense erect shrub to 1.5m or at high altitude a prostrate shrub. Leaves needle-like sharp-pointed, 6-13mm long, with a broad bluish, white band above, in whorls of 3. Male cones ovoid, recalling leaf buds; female cone blue-black when ripe.

Fruiting period: April-May.

Parts used: Leaves and berries.

Distribution: The plants prefer drier areas and abundant in central and eastern Nepal at an altitude ranging between 1800-3600m, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Afghanistan.

Propagation: The Plant is propagated through seeds.

Method of extraction of Juniper Oil: The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of needles and young twings of Juniperus communis L.

Specification of Juniper berry
1. Organoleptic Properties
Appearance Mobile liquid.
Color Water white or pale yellow
Aroma Rich-balsamic, woody-sweet and pine needle like odor.
2. Physico-chemical Properties
Specific gravity . 0.8563 to 0.8731 at 23°C.
Optical rotation [-] 22º to [-] 41.7º at 23º C
Refractive index 1.481 to 1.899 at 23°C.
Acid number 0.5 to 2.5
Ester number 3.06 to 20
Ester number after acetylation 40 to 65
Solubility Some oils are soluble in 95% alcohol and some are not.
3. Chemical constituent
ά- pinene, sabinene and ά- terpinene as major components and others are camphene, β- pinene, δ-3-carene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, trans-3-ethoxy-p-menth-1-ene, campholenic aldehyde, camphor, ά-copaene, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, caryophyllene, ά-terpineol.
4. Uses:
  1. In perfumery and flavors.
  2. Aromatherapy: Rheumatism, anxiety, insomnia, stress

Essential Oil